A little over a year ago (April 2016) I wrote my second post about building a spaceship to go to the Moon. I wanted to get back to this particular thread, in part, because I needed to re-create the graphic in OmniGraffle. The reason for that is my migration from Windows 10 to a Macbook Pro running macOS 10.12. I’d created the earlier drawings in Visio, but for whatever reason Microsoft doesn’t release a version of Visio for the Mac. Furthermore, my version of Visio for Windows, release 2013, won’t work with Office 2016, and Microsoft has decided it won’t upgrade my 2013 version to work with 2016 office. I paid full price for Visio 2013. OmniGraffle for the Mac is much less expensive, and just as powerful for what I need. And it looks a lot better. From this point forward this is the graphic I’ll use, when I need to use it.

Budgetting

The biggest problem with amateurs such as myself talking about personal space ships is forgetting budgeting and logistics. Budgeting means finding the means to pay for everything, from raw materials (which are expensive) to manufacturing to running it and ongoing refurbishment and repairs when needed. The closest examples to this is civilian aviation, in which a small aircraft capable of being licensed is expensive to purchase up front, and then has a constant cost due to operations and maintenance. And that maintenance is important due to being able to maintain air worthiness. Your aircraft must be airworthy in order to be authorized by the FAA to operate an aircraft in flight. You pay for that, and more significantly, you make sure you have the necessary budgeted monies to pay for that. Budgeting is more than just collecting a big pot of money and then spending it. Money has to be managed and fed, in proper amounts at the proper time, to multiple cost centers in order to get work done. Budgeting means you make sure you estimate (and then get) enough money to start with, then tightly control how it’s used over time. Because without a well-funded and well-run budget, nothing gets built nor launched if it is built. Part of the budget feeds a critical capability called logistics.

Logistics

Logistics, with regards to spaceflight, is the detailed coordination of a complex operation involving many people, facilities, and supplies. Multiple companies involved in spaceflight (Boeing, Lockheed, SpaceX, Orbital Sciences, etc) have a large logistics component of their companies of almost mind-numbing complexity. They have to coordinate everything from gathering materials to building rockets to testing them, then matching them with paying costumers, to transport and setup through final launch. And with SpaceX, the landing and refurbishment of Falcon rockets (and subsequent re-use back into the launch process) is an added wrinkle to the whole logistical process. While doing all this everyone has rules and regulations that must be followed for proper safety and quality assurance, which adds more to the overall cost. And before the critics in the peanut gallery pipe up, you need those rules and regulations because of the harsh, unforgiving nature of space itself, let alone the act of launching a rocket with a payload.

And then there’s the logistics of the payload (satellite et. el.) manufacturers, who provide the primary reason for launching lots of rockets in the first place. They have their logistics systems, which must mesh with the rocket makers. And the rocket makers must mesh with NASA and the Air Force, who control the launch facilities through yet another complex logistics system which has been built up and tuned over decades of hard won knowledge and experience. Rockets just don’t go up on a whim. Launches are deeply planned events to minimize risk and maximize success. Poor planning often results in loss of expensive hardware, and sometimes, human lives. Rocketry boils down to the controlling of incredible energies to move material and humans off the surface of the Earth and into orbit. Science and engineering play vital roles in rocketry, but logistics and budgets are equally important. It might even be said that logistics plays the most important role of all.

two out of five

July 7, 2017

Out of five house critters, I managed to photograph two of them; Annie above and Luke below. The all remind me of the saying that “The more I know people, the more I love my [dog|cat].” And in this day and time they are indeed my oasis in this social and political climate.

In Congress, July 4, 1776.

 

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.–That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, –That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.–Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.


Georgia

Button Gwinnett

Lyman Hall

George Walton

 

North Carolina

William Hooper

Joseph Hewes

John Penn

 

South Carolina

Edward Rutledge

Thomas Heyward, Jr.

Thomas Lynch, Jr.

Arthur Middleton

 

Massachusetts

John Hancock

Maryland

Samuel Chase

William Paca

Thomas Stone

Charles Carroll of Carrollton

 

Virginia

George Wythe

Richard Henry Lee

Thomas Jefferson

Benjamin Harrison

Thomas Nelson, Jr.

Francis Lightfoot Lee

Carter Braxton

 

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris

Benjamin Rush

Benjamin Franklin

John Morton

George Clymer

James Smith

George Taylor

James Wilson

George Ross

Delaware

Caesar Rodney

George Read

Thomas McKean

 

New York

William Floyd

Philip Livingston

Francis Lewis

Lewis Morris

 

New Jersey

Richard Stockton

John Witherspoon

Francis Hopkinson

John Hart

Abraham Clark

 

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett

William Whipple

Massachusetts

Samuel Adams

John Adams

Robert Treat Paine

Elbridge Gerry

 

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins

William Ellery

 

Connecticut

Roger Sherman

Samuel Huntington

William Williams

Oliver Wolcott

 

New Hampshire

Matthew Thornton


Copied from https://www.archives.gov/founding-docs/declaration-transcript

Why publish this the day after July 4th? Because of this: “Some Trump supporters thought NPR tweeted ‘propaganda.’ It was the Declaration of Independence.” via Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2017/07/05/some-trump-supporters-thought-npr-tweeted-propaganda-it-was-the-declaration-of-independence/

powershell on macos

July 4, 2017

I wrote in an earlier post about easily installing multiple applications on macOS. One of those applications interestingly enough is Microsoft’s PowerShell. Microsoft has open sourced PowerShell and made it available on GitHub (https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell). From GitHub you can either grab the source and build it yourself, download and install a pre-built binary, or both. I chose to just grab the binary and run with it as I have enough projects to keep me occupied as it is. The current PSVersion is 6.0.0-beta, and it’s shown running on macOS 10.12.5.

I start PowerShell for Mac from the ITerm2 command line, and from there I can look about PowerShell all I want. While the shell appears feature complete as far as syntax is concerned, PowerShell for Mac is missing considerable core .Net functionality when compared to the versions that run on Windows. As one small example shows below, Get-PSProvider doesn’t show the provider for the registry, as there is no equivalent (at all) on macOS. While it’s nice to have the same shell running across multiple platforms, as bash does, PowerShell for Mac and Linux isn’t going to be nearly as useful as it is on Windows if you want full Windows functionality on another OS. Any PowerShell scripts that are developed to take heavy advantage of Windows OS functionality are going to fail pretty hard on both the Mac and Linux, just to give you fair warning.

By the way, two comments on PowerShell help:

  1. If you decide to update PowerShell’s help, then run PowerShell as sudo before running Update-Help, or the updates will fail.
  2. The graphical view of help (via -ShowWindow) isn’t implemented and won’t work.

One tool not provided by the PowerShell project is the PowerShell ISE (Integrated Scripting Environment). The ISE is bundled with every copy of Windows these days, and is a powerful way to write and debug PowerShell scripts of any complexity on Windows. For the Mac the next best tool to use is Visual Studio Code with the PowerShell v1.4.1 extension (see below). You get full syntax highlighting and support as well as a split screen with code at the top and a PowerShell prompt at the bottom. The only major feature missing in this setup is the help section that is displayed to the right (by default) in the native ISE.

PowerShell for Mac and Visual Studio Code for Mac are an interesting counterpoint to Windows Subsystem for Linux on Windows 10. For those folk who like to “swim” in the lower regions of coding and operating systems, we’re living in a golden era.

my opinion on macos

July 2, 2017

In the last post about iOS, reader Wolfgang Lonien asked:

Would be interesting to hear your opinions about MacOS vs. Linux and BSD. How much of it is open like in BSD, how much is the proverbial “walled garden”?

The answer is complicated, and I’ll answer it in two parts.

Open vs Closed

The commercial version is closed. It’s not open like Linux or BSD. macOS as it’s now known (and was known as Mac OS X in previous incarnations) is closed, along with the many support frameworks and applications that come bundled with it. It’s shipped pre-installed on every Mac that Apple sells, ready to run as soon as the new Mac is powered up. This simplifies things greatly. The problem with this pat answer is that while the official binary version as shipped is closed, Apple has released the source code in a limited form for an open version known as Darwin.

Darwin is the source to an operating system composed from NeXTSTEP (later OPENSTEP), elements from BSD, and the Mach microkernel. NeXTSTEP was the underlying OS for Steve Job’s NeXT computer, the computer he developed when he left Apple in 1987. When Steve was re-hired by Apple in 1997, one of the stipulations placed upon Apple upon re-hiring Steve was that Apple would buy NeXT. Apple then announced that the next official Apple OS for the Mac would be derived from NeXTSTEP/OPENSTEP. It was finally released as a public beta in 2000 as Mac OS X. At the same time in 2000, the core elements were released as open source as Darwin under the Apple Public Source License. The Cocoa and Carbon frameworks in particular, as well as many higher-level tools, remained closed.

Here’s what uname -v shows in ITerm2:

Darwin Kernel Version 16.6.0: Fri Apr 14 16:21:16 PDT 2017; root:xnu-3789.60.24~6/RELEASE_X86_64

In the first ten years of Darwin, up to 2010 and Darwin 8.0.1, Apple released a binary ISO to help install Darwin. After 2010 it has only been released as source code. Apple has never released the iOS variant for ARM.

I’m sure this sounds terrible to the purists, but I personally don’t care. The OS works, it’s solid, and I love the desktop. After over 30 years working with graphical desktop operating systems from Windows 1 through AT&T System 3, IRIX, UnixWare, Solaris, and on through Windows 10, I find macOS to be the most refined of them all. It’s notable that macOS is the first, and only, BSD variant I work with. I’ve tried many times in the past to install Free BSD and Net BSD on hardware and virtual machines, and I’ve given up every time due to one stupid glitch after another with the installation. I have no love for any other BSD except Apple’s macOS.

Walled Garden vs Open Installation

Apple’s macOS has its own App Store where you can purchase thousands of applications. It’s not ideal, and many have complained against it since its introduction in 2011. My biggest complaint is that I can’t update apps purchased outside of the app store within the app store. Biggest example of this is my purchase of OmniGraffle. While the App Store shows I have it installed, I have to go to the Omni Group’s website to pick up (and pay for) major upgrades. Free minor updates come via the application itself. It’s an annoyance, to be sure, but it points to a key positive point: You can install any software you want without having to use the App Store.

I have, for example, HomeBrew, through which I have the latest releases of gcc, python, and R; Google’s Go language, Mozilla Research’s Rust, Oracle Java (version 8 update 131 for now), NetBeans 8.2, JetBrains Toolbox with four of their IDEs, Xcode, Visual Studio Code, Android Studio, PowerShell for macOS, Sublime Text, Iterm2 (because I absolutely cannot stand Terminal), VirtualBox (with several Linux VMs), Office 365, GitHub’s desktop, Unity, Blender, Lightroom, and on and on and on. In short the system is wide open to serious development tools and just about anything that can be installed and/or compiled to work on macOS.

As for the App Store, it’s good about delivering updates/upgrades to macOS and all the Apple tools that came pre-installed. The only thing I’ve installed from the App Store are “minor” applications like Bear (in fact I think that’s the only thing I’ve installed from the macOS App Store). macOS isn’t locked down the way iOS is, and I appreciate that, the same way I appreciate that iOS is as locked down as it is. My iPhone has become a vital part of my personal and work life, and if it wasn’t as locked down as it is now, I’d lock it down hard myself. It’s one of many reasons I switched from Android (Samsung Galaxy) to an iPhone back in 2015. Android is far more easily hackable and rootable than iOS; way too easy.

One More Thing

macOS is UNIX Certified, specifically The Open Group UNIX® 03 standard. I tend to pay attention to standards in my line of work, and the fact that macOS conforms to the UNIX standard, instead of calling itself UNIX-like, adds to the value of the overall computer system I use for my personal and professional work. Neither Linux nor the free BSDs are there, and probably never will be. That doesn’t mean I won’t use them, but then again, it also means I won’t walk away from macOS nor the hardware on which it runs. I depend on all my tools, and I want them to be the best quality tools I can possibly afford. macOS definitely fits in the quality tool category.